A cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used in this work to determine the combustion and pyrolysis characteristics of decorative bamboo filaments before and after being treated with boric acid and borax (1:1) flame-retardants. The kinetics were calculated using the Coates-Redfern model. The results showed that in comparison to the control sample, the flame combustion time decreased from 52 s to 40 s, and the peak value of the heat release rate (PKHRR) and total heat release (THR) of the boric acid and borax treated samples were significantly decreased, by 21.0% and 22.2%, respectively. The peak value of the smoke release rate (PKSPR), total smoke production (TSP), and the specific extinction area (ASEA) were reduced substantially, by 90.6%, 93.3%, and 93.0%, respectively. After the boric acid and borax (1 to 1 ratio) flame retardant treatment, the pyrolysis range, the mass loss, the maximum mass loss rate, and the corresponding peak temperature of the samples all significantly decreased with the same heating rate. The activation energy of the BB-treated samples was higher than the control group, which indicated the boric acid and borax flame retardant had flame retardant efficiency.