AbstractA pyrolysis tube furnace system was designed to assess the impact of different components on pyrolysis characteristics under nitrogen atmosphere, and pyrolysis temperature (400 to 900oC) as important factors acting on the samples during pyrolysis. The obtained pyrolysate was classified into three groups, i.e. the condensed liquid product (bio-oil), solid product (bio-char), and light gas. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to analyze ingredients of the light gas released during pyrolysis, and a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to analyze bio-oil. The results revealed that the volatiles from rice straw pyrolysis exceeded that from lignin at temperatures below 700oC as a result of the higher char generation from lignin pyrolysis. With an increase of pyrolysis temperature, the yield of char decreased and light gas persistently increased, and the yield of bio-tar was maximized at 500oC. In the gas product, H2, CO, CO2 and some light hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H4 and C2H6) could be found, and H2 and CO were abundant. Compounds of bio-oil derived from lignin were simple and consisted of aromatic hydrocarbons, chain hydrocarbon, monoaromatics, and a minor amount of ketones. Phenolic compounds, which comprised 50 to 60%, can be converted easily to obtain high-value chemicals and high quality biofuels.