NC State
Loo, M. M. L., Hashim, R., and Leh, C. P. (2012). "Recycling of valueless paper dust to a low grade cellulose acetate: Effect of pretreatments on acetylation," BioRes. 7(1), 1068-1083.


The feasibility of the production of cellulose acetate (CA) from recycled paper dust from carton boxes was examined. Two pre-treatments were carried out on the carton box’s paper dust (CPD) to improve the pulp properties for better effect of synthesis. The results showed that the acid and oxygen-alkaline pretreatments were capable of increasing the alpha-cellulose content from 80.5 percent to 87.3 percent and 85.3 percent, respectively. Both pre-treatments also decreased the hemicellulose and ash contents by more than 50 percent. The degree of substitution (DS) of the resultant CA from pre-treated paper dust was improved from 1.94 to 2.13-2.16. The CA that was synthesized from the recycled paper dust showed comparable DS and had a similar trend of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. Both pretreated pulps also showed an increment in the degree of crystallinity and had maximum degradation effect of temperature when compared to CPD CA. However, all the cellulose acetates produced showed a lower DS and thermal stability compared to commercial cellulose acetate (C CA). The degree of crystallinity of all the cellulose acetate was decreased in comparison to the original material.
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