The reliability of the measurement method in determining the mass concentration of wood dust relates to the sampling time for the detection of wood particles in the ambient air of woodworking places. The aim of this study was to calculate the mass limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and the minimal sampling time (tLOD and tLOQ) for determination and quantification of samples, based on the hardwood dust mass concentration at various woodworking places in the sawmills, floor production factories, and carpentries. Determination of the mass concentration of respirable, inhalable, and total hardwood dust from ambient air was performed using personal sampling pumps and three types of filter holders: respirable dust cyclone, Institute of Occupational Medicine IOM inhalable dust sampler, and total dust open-faced filter holder. The average limit of detection amounts to 0.052, 0.083, and 0.167 mg for respirable, inhalable, and total hardwood dust, respectively. The minimal detection sampling time for collecting all observed types of dust fractions ranged between 1.12 h and 1.72 h. The minimal quantification time for all collected hardwood dust samples ranged from 3.75 h to 5.51 h. Pearson’s correlation test showed that the reliability of the measurements was affected more by the dustiness of the workspace than the real sampling time.