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Murithi, G., Onindo, C. O., Wambu, E. W., and Muthakia, G. K. (2014). "Removal of cadmium(II) ions from water by adsorption using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) biomass," BioRes. 9(2), 3613-3631.


The kinetics and equilibrium binding of Cd(II) ions onto raw water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) biomass (RBH) were investigated with the view to utilize it as a low-cost biosorbent for removal of toxic metal ions from water. The biosorption was analyzed through batch experiments with respect to the effect of contact time, agitation speed, biosorbent dosage, solution pH, Cd(II) concentration, and the presence of other metal ions. Cadmium adsorption onto Eichhornia crassipes biomass was pH- and temperature-dependent, and complete Cd(II) removal from solution was achieved at all Cd(II) concentrations up to 10 mg/L. The biosorption equilibrium was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and the RBH Cd(II) uptake capacity was 104 mg/g. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.99). The root biomass of water hyacinth had one of the highest Cd(II) sequestration efficiencies when compared to other biosorbents that have been used to remove Cd(II) from water.
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