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Wang, S., Cai, Q., Guo, Z., Wang, Y., and Wang, X. (2012). "Renewable gasoline produced by co-cracking of methanol and ketones in bio-oil," BioRes. 7(4), 5019-5031.


Most research on the upgrading of bio-oil by cracking has been done under atmospheric pressure, which results in a catalyst coke yield as high as 20 wt%. In this paper, pressurized cracking, as well as co-cracking with methanol proved to be an effective solution for relieving catalyst deactivation. HZSM-5 catalyst was found to deactivate rapidly in the cracking process of pure ketones. However, when methanol was used as the co-cracking substance for ketones under 2 MPa, ketones reached a full conversion of 100 % without obvious catalyst deactivation. The highest selectivity of bio-gasoline phase from co-cracking of ketones and methanol reached a value of 31.6%, in which liquid hydrocarbons had a relative content of 97.2%. The co-cracking of hydroxypropanone and methanol had lower bio-gasoline phase selectivity but better oil phase quality (liquid hydrocarbons selectivity up to 99%) than those of cyclopentanone and methanol. Based on the experimental results, the promotion mechanism of methanol on cracking of ketones in bio-oil was illustrated by a co-cracking mechanism model.
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