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H. Asaoka. Research and Development in Japan – present and future. In The role of fundamental research in paper-making, Trans. of the VIIth Fund. Res. Symp. Cambridge, 1981, (Fundamental Research Committee, ed.), pp 1031–1059, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


For over a hundred years, the Japanese pulp and paper industry, which dates back to 1873, has had to struggle with three major problems.

For the first 40 years, it had to compete with traditional hand-sheet making. The introduction of mass-production technology from abroad allowed the machine-made paper industry to surpass hand-sheet production.

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