NC State
BioResources
Behjou, F. K., and Ghafarzade Mollabashi, O. (2012). "Selective logging and damage to unharvested trees in a hyrcanian forest of Iran," BioRes. 7(4), 4867-4874.

Abstract

Selective logging in mature hardwood stands of Caspian forests often causes physical damage to residual trees through felling and skidding operations, resulting in a decline in bole quality and subsequent loss of tree value. This study evaluated the logging damage to residual trees following logging operations. A total density of 5.1 trees/ha and 17.3 m3/ha of wood were harvested. On average, 9.8 trees were damaged for every tree extracted, including 8 trees destroyed or severely damaged. The most common types of damage included uprooted stems, stem wounds to the cambial layer, and bark scrapes. Damage to trees sustained along skid trails was found to be significantly more than the damage that incurred within logging gaps and winching areas. The results of this study suggest that logging practices also need to be accompanied by close supervision of field personnel and post-logging site inspections to be implemented properly.
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