The reaction between paper and its environment is by definition the ecology of paper. This word was once understood only by biological scientists and scholars of Greek, but it is now on everybody’s lips, so session 7 should have proved immensely popular. Of course, we have largely confined our considerations to the response of paper to its environment or to imposed conditions of temperature, humidity and mechanical or chemical stress; we have not been too concerned today with the way in which the total environment, as it involves man, is affected by paper and by the technological processes that constitute papermaking-or more broadly, the pulp and paper industry. It is as well to note, however, the connection between paper’s response to and its effect on the environment, if only to ensure, as the sledgehammers of change swing ever faster, that we do not lose sight of the relevance of our discussions to the current pressing problems on the interface between the paper industry and the rest of society. Nor, we hope, will the relevance be lost on those responsible for sponsoring our attendance at the next symposium.