AbstractIn this study, the use of bagasse fiber (BF) and unbleached bagasse pulp (BP) in a cement matrix, as a raw material, to produce lightweight construction materials is reported. The bagasse was used as partial replacement of cement at different levels: 0% (control cement), 1%, 2% 3%, and 4% by weight. The average size of bagasse fibers was less than 2 mm. Although a reduction in the physical and mechanical strength was observed, the incorporation of either fiber or pulp increased the water of consistency and setting time. A composite containing 4% of bagasse fibers can be used for lightweight concrete. FT-IR spectra showed that the BF or BP adversely affect the rate of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) formation by decreasing its promotion.