Three factors involved in the strength of paper are discussed (1) the strength of the fibre, (2) resistance to failure by slippage of fibres and (3) interfibre bonding. The objectives of beating are considered to be the production of (1) the best conditions for maximum interweaving of fibres in the web and (2) the best conditions for bonding between fibres. Both of these desirable attributes must be produced with maximum possible avoidance of gross damage to the fibre.
The matters are discussed in some detail. Particular attention is drawn to other closely related topics for example, fibre swelling and plasticisation, interfibre adhesion in suspensions and flocculation and the relationship of tearing strength to beating.