NC State
Wiwart, M., Bytner, M., Graban, L., Lajszner, W., and Suchowilska, E. (2017). "Spelt (Triticum spelta) and emmer (T. dicoccon) chaff used as a renewable source of energy," BioRes. 12(2), 3744-3750.


The energy values of spelt (Triticum spelta) and emmer (T. dicoccon) chaff were determined and compared to wheat and barley straw. The thermophysical parameters (moisture content, lower calorific value, gross calorific value, content of fixed carbon, volatile matter, and ash) and elemental composition (content of C, H, S, N, and O) of spelt and emmer chaff were determined. Spelt and emmer chaff were characterized by higher gross calorific value (18.75 GJ/Mg vs. 18.31 GJ/Mg), higher lower calorific value (16.74 GJ/Mg vs. 16.35 GJ/Mg), noticeably lower ash content (3.79% vs. 6.16%) and lower content of volatile matter (70.3% vs. 74.9%) than wheat and barley straw. Emmer chaff contained noticeably more sulfur (0.148%), nitrogen (2.20%) and hydrogen (7.50%) than both types of straw (0.064%, 0.66% and 5.55% on average, respectively) and spelt chaff (0.071%, 0.80%, and 7.06%, respectively). Despite the fact that the relatively high sulfur content in emmer chaff is not desirable, the results of this study indicate that the chaff of hulled wheat had considerable energy potential and that hulled wheats could be effectively used as renewable sources of energy in the region of their production.

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