NC State
Afzal, M. T., Bedane, A. H., Sokhansanj, S., and Mahmood, W. (2010). "Storage of comminuted and uncomminuted forest biomass and its effect on fuel quality," BioRes. 5(1), 55-69.


White birch was stored in the form of bundles, wood chips, and loose slash for a period of one year to examine the changes in biomass fuel properties. The samples were collected at regular quarterly intervals to measure moisture content, CNS content, ash content, and calorific value. Data loggers were also placed into the stored woody biomass to measure the temperature change inside the piles. After the first quarter of the storage period and continuing into the next three months of storage, the moisture content showed the most significant change. The moisture content of the biomass bundles increased from 29 % to above 80 % (db). The moisture content of the pile of wood chips covered with a tarp decreased from 51% to 26% and showed a continuous decline in moisture content to the end of storage period to an average range of 16.5% (db). However, the moisture content of uncovered wood chip pile was observed to continuously increase throughout the storage period, resulting in more than double in magnitude from 59% to 160% (db). The dry matter loss was higher in wood chip piles (8~27%) than in bundles (~3%). Among the other properties, there was slightly higher loss of calorific value in wood chips (~1.6%) as compared to bundles (~0.7%) at the end of one year.
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