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D.H. Page, J.W. Sargent and R. Nelson. Structure of paper in cross-section. In Consolidation of the Paper Web, Trans. of the IIIrd Fund. Res. Symp. Cambridge, 1965, (F. Bolam, ed.), pp 313–349, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


Previous work on the sectioning of paper has not fully utilised the power of the light microscope. This paper describes techniques developed to enable the structure of paper to be seen in considerable detail in cross-section. The techniques are illustrated by sections of a wide range of types of paper. The consolidation of the structure of paper during manufacture is revealed by micrographs of the effects of beating, pressing, drying with and without restraint, super calendering and creping.

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