AbstractRubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) was esterfied with phenylisothiocya-nate, and dimensional stability, decay resistance, and photo stability of the modified wood was assessed. The chemically modified wood was characterized by FTIR and CP/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy. Unmodified and modified samples were exposed to a brown rot (Polyporus meliae) and a white rot (Coriolus versicolor) fungus for 12 weeks. Modified wood samples exhibited good dimensional stability and were very resistant to decay. However, phenylisothiocyanate modification of wood was not effective in decreasing photo-yellowing.