NC State
R.E. Johnston and L.A. Kirk. Sub-optimum grade change procedures. In Papermaking Systems and their Control, Trans. of the IVth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1969, (F. Bolam, ed.), pp 523–538, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


A numerical optimisation technique has been used to show, computationally, that simple control trajectories can give considerably reduced grade change times. The models studied include one-pump and two-pump systems with and without changing wire rejection factors. Consideration has been given to some simple constraints.

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