NC State
Suwunwong, T., Boonsamran, S., Watla-iad, K., Choto, P., Wisittipanit, N., Chub-uppakarn, T., and Phoungthong, K. (2021). "Suitability and characteristics of combustion residues from renewable power plants for subbase aggregate materials, in Thailand," BioResources 16(2), 2264-2278.


Physico-chemical properties and the environmental impacts were studied relative to the leaching of rubber fly ash and bottom ash. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash and bottom ash were confirmed by the chemical composition, including silicon oxides, calcium oxides, and aluminum oxides. The geo-technical characteristics of rubber wood fly ash and bottom ash, i.e., modified compaction, plasticity, and the soaked California Bearing Ratio, were evaluated to assess the feasibility of fly ash or bottom ash mixed with lateritic soil as aggregate materials for the subbase in road construction in order to optimize the replacement of lateritic soil by fly ash or bottom ash. The leachates from rubber fly ash and bottom ash did not exceed standard thresholds. The measured characteristics of fly ash or bottom ash mixed with lateritic soil were in good alignment with the effective engineering thresholds. Recommendations were developed for safe reuse of byproducts from rubber renewable power plant in subbase road construction.

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