Commercial talc was modified with phthalimide to produce a composite filler, which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was used as a papermaking filler, and its efficiency was compared with that of plain commercial talc and when mixed with additives (i.e., cationic polyacrylamide and alum-rosin size). The results showed that phthalimide could be linked appropriately to the surface of talc particles through forming ester bonds with the surface hydroxyl groups. The brightness of the composite filler was more than that of the commercial filler due to a reduction in the impurities and removal of the metal compounds. Unlike other treatments, the brightness of the papers filled with modified talc (MT) was enhanced with increases in filler loading. In spite of reducing the paper strength in all treatments, the reduction was significantly less in the MT treatment, which implies the enhancement in particle tendency to develop hydrogen bonds in the fiber network.