AbstractA series of materials used for oil absorption based on cellulose fiber grafted with (BuAc) have been prepared by radical polymerization under ultrasonic waves processing. Effects of ultrasonic dose for the maximum graft yield were considered. The dependency of optimum conditions for oil absorption rate on parameters such as ultrasonic processing time and ultrasonic power were also determined. Fourier infrared (FT-IR) analysis was used to confirm the chemical reaction taking place between cellulose and butyl acrylate. The thermogravimetric behavior of the graft copolymer was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was used to determine the surface structure of the grafted material. With the increase of the ultrasonic treatment dose, the surface of the ultrasonic processed material became more regular, and the material was transformed into a homogeneous network polymer having a good structure and good adsorbing ability.