The dissolution of cellulose is an important pretreatment method required for some of its catalytic conversion processes. Morpholinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) are challenging solvent choices available for “greener” and “cheaper” dissolution of cellulose. In this study, morpholinium-based ILs were prepared, and their influencing factors were experimentally investigated. The unique bipolar chemical structure derived from oxygen (electron-rich center) and nitrogen (electron-poor center) considerably enhanced the Hammett acidity function (H0) of task-ILs. N-Methyl-N-allyl-morpholinium acetate IL showed the highest H0 (2.324) and polarizability power (1.096). The anion of ILs determined the hydrogen bond basicity (β). The acetate anion contributed to β (0.88) values. As to fluid properties, the morpholinium-based ILs exhibited much lower viscosity. The properties of ILs improved the dissolution efficiency. The cellulose was directly dissolved in morpholinium-based Ils, and no other derivatives were formed. The cations and the anions of ILs studied reacted with oxygen and hydrogen atoms on the hydroxyl groups of cellulose, respectively.