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BioResources
Gan, S., Mohammad Padzil, F. N., Zakaria, S., Chia, C. H., Syed Jaafar, S. N., Chen, R. S. (2015). "Synthesis of liquid hot water cotton linter to prepare cellulose membrane using NaOH/urea or LiOH/urea," BioRes. 10(2), 2244-2255.

Abstract

The liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment on cotton linter (CL) was carried out using an autoclave heated in a hot oil bath. The LHW pretreated CL (LCL) was dissolved in NaOH/urea and LiOH/urea aqueous solutions and subsequently used to produce cellulose membrane. The effects of LHW pretreatment, amount of cellulose, and type of alkaline solvent on properties of cellulose solution and cellulose membrane were studied. The formation of cellulose II and crystallinity index (CrI) on the cellulose membranes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of cellulose membranes were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The LHW pretreatment resulted in higher cellulose solubility, higher cellulose solution viscosity, and improved properties of regenerated cellulose products compared to non-treated cellulose. Results also revealed that the amount of cellulose used affected the solubility and viscosity of the cellulose solution and the higher dissolving power of the LiOH/urea system as compared to the NaOH/urea system. In fact, higher solubility and viscosity properties are key factors in many cellulose applications such as membranes, fibers, hydrogels, and other regenerated cellulose products.
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