AbstractNano-cellulose was prepared via acid hydrolysis and cell crushing using microcrystalline cellulose as the raw material. Mesoporous TiO2 was then prepared via hydrothermal synthesis using butyl titanate as the titanium source and the previously prepared nano-cellulose as the template. It is confirmed by FT-IR and XRD that the commercial product P25 consisted of anatase and rutile mixed crystal structure, in which the content of anatase and rutile was 80.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The prepared TiO2 had an anatase single crystal structure. XPS analysis showed an elemental content of C, O, and Ti with two kinds of TiO2. TEM, HRTEM, and electron diffraction were used to characterize the particle size of the prepared mesoporous TiO2, mainly concentrated in the 10 to 20 nm range. Crystalline spacing was 0.35 nm (101). By comparison, the particle size of P25 was mainly distributed in the 15 to 25 nm range with a crystalline spacing of 0.35 (101) and 0.32 nm (110) respectively. XRD analysis was consistent with the results. Based on N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm curves it was evident that the surface area of prepared TiO2 and P25 was 38.92 m2/g and 53.54 m2/g, the cumulative pore volume of the two is 0.24 m2/g and 0.17 m2/g respectively. The experiments of photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B showed that the catalytic ability of the prepared mesoporous TiO2 to degrade pollutants was better than commercial TiO2 under UV irradiation.