AbstractDue to their unique physical and chemical properties, hygrogels have been applied in various industrial and agricultural fields. Biomedicine is another high value-added and attractive area for the application of hydrogels. For this reason, a novel temperature/pH sensitive cellulose based hydrogel was synthesized based on the cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla. Its synthesis conditions were optimized, and its loading and release capabilities for model drugs were investigated in detail. The resultant data showed that the synthesized hydrogel exhibited the highest swelling ratio at 37 °C and pH 7.4, corresponding to the temperature and pH of the human intestinal environment. The hydrogel held excellent load performance for model drug MB and an obvious temperature dependence at 37 °C (body temperature of human) when the model drug was released from it. These positive results suggest that the synthesized temperature/pH sensitive cellulose-based hydrogel has a great potential for oral drug delivery applications.