AbstractTensile properties of bamboo fiber (BF)/polypropylene (PP) composites were investigated for different impregnation modification processes. The surface morphology of BF and the fracture morphology of the BF/PP composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Images showed that CaCO3 nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) adhered to the fiber surfaces. Tension tests of individual bamboo fibers (IBFs) and the BF/PP composites were conducted. The results indicated that the tensile strength (TS), modulus of elasticity (MOE), and elongation at break (EAB) of IBFs increased by 16.0%, 22.2%, and 5.2%, respectively, while those of the BF/PP composites increased by 3.0%, 7.0%, and 15.8%, respectively, compared to the control samples. Various process parameters during the impregnation with nano-CaCO3 had marked effects on the tensile properties of the composites. The optimal conditions for BF-reinforced PP composites by impregnation modification were determined to be a nano-CaCO3 concentration of 1.0×10-2 g/mL, an ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na) additive concentration of 8.5×10-4 g/mL, and an impregnation time of 25 min.