Geometrically non-linear, large scale post-buckling analyses were carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters on residual waviness (fluting) after printing in a heat set web offset printing press. Mixed implicit-explicit finite element techniques were used in the analyses. The numerical procedure was verified by experimentally acquired data. Results show that when the paper web is perfectly flat before printing, fluting patterns after drying and moisture recovery generally have higher wavelength than those typically observed in fluted samples. Initial cockles of unprinted sheets were found to have impacts on the fluting patterns and amplitudes. Among the factors investigated, ink thickness and hygroexpansivity had significant influences on fluting: increasing these factors increased fluting amplitudes.