NC State
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Dungani, R., Islam, M. N., Khalil, A., Hartati, S., Abdullah, C. K., Dewi, M., and Hadiyane, A. (2013). "Termite resistance study of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) impregnated with oil palm shell meal and phenol-formaldehyde resin," BioRes. 8(4), 4937-4950.

Abstract

A phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin treatment of OPTL with various concentrations of finely ground palm shell, together abbreviated PF-FGPS, has been used to improve termite resistance. Termite resistance was evaluated in two ways, in a laboratory test and in a field test that lasted 3 months. A feeding arena sample was prepared for the first experiment so that the responses of the subterranean termite (Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren)) and the drywood termite (Cryptotermes cynocephalus (Light)) to the laboratory test could be observed for 4 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. In general, the PF-FGPS led to greater termite resistance than did the control (dried OPTL and rubberwood), and the resistance of the samples to the subterranean termite C. curvignathus was classified as moderate when the samples were treated with OPS meal. Meanwhile, the resistance of the samples to the drywood termite C. cynocephalus was classified as moderate when samples were treated with OPS meal concentrations of 0, 1, and 3%. The samples treated with 5% OPS meal were classified as resistant. In the field test, samples impregnated with OPS meal at levels of 3%, 5%, and 10% were classified as resistant, while those impregnated with OPS meal at levels of 0 and 1% were classified as moderately resistant to attack by the subterranean termite.
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