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P. Howarth and M.K. Schindler. The areal distribution of liquid penetration of paper. In Papermaking Raw Materials, Trans. of the VIIIth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1985, (V. Punton, ed.), pp 483–496, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


The penetration of fluids into paper is discussed with particular reference to the phenomenon of wetting. An experimental programme is described in which the distribution of penetration over the area of the sheet is measured.

The results indicate that considerable non-uniformity exists and, furthermore, an increase in the degree of sizing of the sheet leads to an increase in the non-uniformity of its wetting by aqueous fluids.

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