The surface roughness of bamboo is a factor that determines the processing quality. The effects of spindle speed, feed speed, and cutting depth on the surface roughness of bamboo were studied using the orthogonal design test method. The results were analyzed using range analysis, main effect analysis, interaction analysis, and variance analysis to determine the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness of bamboo. The feed speed had a greater effect on the surface roughness of the bamboo in the tangential section; the spindle speed had a greater impact on the surface roughness of the bamboo in the cross section. The cutting depth had a greater impact on the surface roughness of the bamboo in the radial section. For the surface roughness on the tangential, cross, and radial sections of the bamboo, there was a relationship with the cutting parameters. A mathematical model for the analysis of surface roughness was established by response surface method. Also, contour and surface plots based on regression models showed the correlation between surface roughness and all possible pairwise combinations of three cutting parameter variables. The cutting technology with the best surface quality was determined by optimization analysis.