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BioResources
Wang, C., Chin, Y. F., and Tong, G. (2011). "The effect of cationic surfactants on xerographic toner agglomeration under alkaline pulping condition," BioRes. 6(4), 3638-3655.

Abstract

1-octadecanol is known to be a highly effective agglomerating agent for nonimpact-printing toners. However, it was found that some xerographic toners did not agglomerate under alkaline conditions. The effect of alkali on the agglomeration was studied with two different toners, one carrying no surface charge and one carrying a negative charge. The effect of the addition of a cationic surfactant on the agglomeration under neutral and alkaline conditions was then studied using two different cationic surfactants. It was found that both toners agglomerated better under neutral conditions than under alkaline conditions. The toner carrying no surface charge agglomerated much better than the toner carrying a negative charge under either alkaline or neutral conditions. The addition of a cationic surfactant greatly improved the agglomeration of the toner carrying a negative charge but had relatively small effect on that of the toner carrying no surface charge. It is recommended that agglomeration of mixed office waste with 1-octadecanol should be carried out under neutral conditions with the addition of a small amount of a cationic surfactant.
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