AbstractThe properties of non-treated and hydrochloric acid (HCl)-treated oil palm ash (OPA)-filled natural rubber (NR) composites were investigated in terms of swelling behavior, rubber-filler interaction, ageing resistance, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermal stability. The incorporation of OPA resulted in a lower degree of swelling in the NR composites, which was even lower after HCl treatment. Concerning the rubber-filler interaction, the HCl-treated OPA had better interfacial interaction with the NR matrix than that of non-treated OPA, resulting in higher crosslink density and improved ageing resistance. The dynamic mechanical properties of NR composites were better with the incorporation of HCl-treated OPA compared to non-treated OPA, in that they showed a higher storage modulus and lower mechanical loss factor. Thermogravimetry analysis revealed that the HCl treatment process did not affect the thermal stability of OPA-filled NR composites.