AbstractMicrowave pretreatment can increase the transverse permeability of wood. The effects of impregnation on microwave-pretreated wood with low-molecular weight phenol formaldehyde resin was investigated. The results showed that the improved transverse permeability of poplar wood that had received microwave pretreatment resulted in a positive influence on the effect of the impregnation. The maximum impregnation weight gain rate was 51.08%, with the average being approximately 40%. The average density of the specimens impregnated for 1.50 h at 0.8 MPa was 584.8 kg•m-3. During the course of the study, the resin present in the wood became distributed evenly in the vessel elements, wood fiber lumens, and intercellular spaces. Finally, the chromogenic reaction area accounted for 78.11% of the total area in the fluorescent staining diagram of the cross section.