NC State
Löwe, A., Hauptmann, M., and Majschak, J. P. (2017). "The effect of ultrasonic oscillation on the quality of 3D shapes during deep-drawing of paperboard," BioRes. 12(4), 7178-7194.


In this publication, the ultrasonic-assisted deep-drawing of fiber-based materials, whose implementation was presented in Löwe et al. (2016), was studied in detail. Methods were developed for measuring the properties of deep-drawn cups, including cup stability, shape deviation, and surface quality. The relationship between these properties and the process parameters were determined with a design of experiment, which allows the user to adjust the cup properties in order to optimize them.

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