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R. Steadman and P. Luner. The effect of wet fibre flexibility of sheet apparent density. In Papermaking Raw Materials, Trans. of the VIIIth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1985, (V. Punton, ed.), pp 311–337, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


A new individual wet fibre flexibility test has been devised, and used to investigate the relationship between fines-free sheet apparent density and the wet flexibility of the constituent fibres. Linear relationships were found for a number of pulps, ranging from bleached chemical to thermomechanical, and for several different pulp treatments. It was concluded that changes in the average wet fibre flexibility of a particular pulp, caused by mechanical and/or chemical treatment, can be evaluated by measuring the apparent density of the fines-free sheet, at least over the investigated range (240-760 kg/m³).

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