NC State
Mao, A., Hassan, E. B., and Kim, M. G. (2013). "The effects of adding melamine at different resin synthesis points of low mole ratio urea-melamine-formaldehyde (UMF) resins," BioRes. 8(4), 5733-5748.


Low mole ratio urea-melamine-formaldehyde (UMF) resins synthesized with 2.5% and 5.0% melamine levels added at the beginning, middle, and end points of the first alkaline step of the typical urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin synthesis procedure were compared with typical UMF resins synthesized with melamine additions made at the final alkaline step. Various resin analysis, particleboard preparation, physical performance, and formaldehyde emission level tests were carried out. UMF resins synthesized with melamine additions at the beginning of the first alkaline step showed adequate storage lives of 2 to 3 weeks, and their particleboard bonding tests showed small but significant improvements in water soak test values, while formaldehyde content values were slightly higher in comparison with typical UMF resins. The particleboards showed adequate board strength and the formaldehyde contents were relatively low to qualify for the E1 Class of European Standards. UMF resins synthesized with melamine addition made at the middle and end of the first alkaline step were highly turbid and showed chemical structure differences and very short storage lives and the resin synthesis procedures were concluded to be of little practical value.
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