AbstractElongation at failure is an important but underrated functional property of paper. Traditionally, elongation has been of specific importance for sack and bag paper grades. Mechanical treatments at high consistency are known to induce fibre deformations that contribute to the elongation of paper. However, it is not clear to what extent different fibre deformations can improve the elongation of paper. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three mechanical treatments on fibre and paper properties. The wing defibrator, the E-compactor, and the Valley beater were used for treating chemical softwood pulp. It was found that the type and intensity of mechanical treatments significantly affect the formation of fibre deformations, and thus the resulting properties of paper. The combination of high-consistency wing defibrator treatment and subsequent low-consistency valley beating provided paper with high elongation potential and good strength properties without impairing the dewatering properties.