NC State
P. Howarth. The fundamental problem in recycling. In Fibre-Water Interactions in Paper-Making, Trans. of the VIth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1977, (Fundamental Research Committee, ed.), pp 823–831, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


From a review of the literature and our own work, it appears that the problem requiring most urgent attention is the nature of secondary fibres themselves. It is shown that the essential difference between secondary and virgin fibres is their bondability and that this depends on the papermaking process by which the secondary fibres were generated. Mention is made of some treatments which go some way towards restoring the strength of sheets containing recycled fibre.

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