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J.F. Coales. The future of control engineering. In Papermaking Systems and their Control, Trans. of the IVth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1969, (F. Bolam, ed.), pp 653–672, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


Up to a few years ago, all industrial processes were either batch processes or were operated on a steady state basis, although some (like papermills, automatic looms and steel-rolling mills) operated in steady state only for a limited period until the specification or grade of the output had to be changed. Thus, industrial processes can be divided into three classes:

  1. Batch processes.
  2. Continuous processes.
  3. Quasi-batch processes.

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