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P.E. Wrist. The future of process control in the paper industry. In Papermaking Systems and their Control, Trans. of the IVth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1969, (F. Bolam, ed.), pp 673–689, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


History and philosophy of control systems

The past decade has witnessed a major advance in the use of process control systems by the paper industry. Before that time, very few variables were controlled automatically, many instruments were either indicating or else, if controlling, were operated in the manual mode much of the time and the degree of instrument reliability and accuracy in the average mill did not promote operator confidence or use . Pneumatic controllers performing simple control loop strategies were the norm. Making paper was an art and frequently different papermakers would operate a machine in quite different ways to make the same given grade of paper. Fairly broad tolerances in paper specifications were accepted in the trade, since few machines could achieve or maintain very stable operations.

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