The effects of varying the laser power output, from 5.6 to 8 W, and the scanning speed, from 100 to 500 mm/s of a CO2 laser beam on the surface quality of Norway maple (Acer platanoides) were investigated. The results showed that the roughness parameters (Ra, Rsk, Rt, Rk, Rpk, and Rvk) increased with increased laser power and decreased with decreased laser scanning speed. The roughness parameters had a linear trend with the laser power and a logarithmic correlation with the laser scanning speed. The best correlation was found for the composed parameter Rk + Rpk + Rvk, which may be the best descriptor of the laser action on wood, closely followed by Ra, Rk, and Rt. Rpk was the most affected parameter by the laser action on wood. The roughness parameters correlated best with the laser power for a laser scanning speed of 300 mm/s. An ablation effect on wood combined with protruding latewood bands visible as surface ridges was more pronounced with an increase in the laser power and with a decrease in scanning speed. The high laser powers (7.2, 7.6, and 8 W) combined with the lowest scanning speed, 100 mm/s, burned and visibly degraded the surface.