Compost and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are environmentally sustainable and low-cost materials that can benefit tropical soils with high phosphorus fixation and low organic matter content. This study investigated the effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and compost on the growth and nutrient uptake efficiency of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) seedlings. The experimental design was a completely randomized factorial design, where factor A (n = 5) was the compost doses (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 t ha-1) and B (n = 3) the AMF inoculum (Rhizophagus clarus, Gigaspora margarita, and non-inoculated). At 30 and 90 d, seedlings’ diameter and height were measured. Mycorrhizal colonization rate, biomass production, nutrient uptake (P and N), and mycorrhizal dependency were assessed at the end of the experiment. The AMF and compost doses affected the colonization rate, initial growth, biomass production, and nutrient uptake of sugarcane seedlings. Overall, the AMF benefited plant growth at lower doses of compost. R. clarus had a higher impact on the shoot diameter of sugarcane seedlings. Mycorrhizal colonization increased with compost addition only in seedlings inoculated with G. margarita. There was no clear trend among AMF treatments for nutrient uptake. In general, sugarcane seedlings dependency on mycorrhizal condition to produce growth was higher at lower compost doses.