This study examined the influence of temperature and time of treatment on the density profile and hardness of surface-densified birch wood (Betula pendula Roth). An analysis of the wood density profile was conducted on the basis of the following parameters: thickness, maximum density, and the distance between the maximum density and the wood surface. Depending on the technological parameters’ values, the degree of compression of the wood was 13% to 22%, and its maximum density was 808 kg/m3 to 994 kg/m3. As a result of the modification of birch wood at a temperature of 100 °C and 125 °C, the wood was densified on one side. As the temperature of the thermo-mechanical treatment was raised from 150 °C to 200 °C, the wood became densified on both sides. The maximum density of the wood increased gradually with the increase of the temperature of the press plate. The longer the time of thermo-mechanical treatment, the more distant the maximum density area was from the wood surface. Depending on the temperature and the time of treatment, the hardness of the surface-densified birch wood was 1.4 to 2.2 times greater than the hardness of non-densified wood.