NC State
BioResources
Zhang, M., Zhang, D., Feng, Y., Min, D., and Dai, H. (2015). "The optimization of the water footprint and strength properties of handsheets by the extreme vertices mixture design," BioRes. 10(3), 5830-5844.

Abstract

Water footprint (WF) is widely used as a life cycle assessment (LCA) tool to assess the environmental impacts of water usage associated with forestry-based production. The calculations of WF are significantly influenced by the raw materials and the process. Some information is available on WF in the papermaking industry. However, there has been little consideration of the correlation between the WF and the properties of paper. Technically, the WF and the properties of paper are impacted by the raw materials. Generally, the ideal formula of raw materials used to make paper could decrease the WF while maintaining the properties of the paper. In the current study, the extreme vertices mixture design was used to optimize the WF and properties of the handsheet by the raw materials. The new model indicated that the WF of the handsheet was decreased significantly while the properties was maintained through the adjustment of the raw materials.
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