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H.W. Emerton. The outer secondary wall: Pt. 2 – Its possible papermaking significance. In Fundamentals of Papermaking Fibres, Trans. of the Ist Fund. Res. Symp. Cambridge, 1957, (F. Bolam, ed.), pp 431–434, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


It is believed that the object of beating is to enhance the plastic deformability of the pulp fibres, at the same time increasing their surface activity. This is achieved by internal fibrillation, which potentially increases the amount of water imbibed. The actual amount imbibed will depend, however, on the ability of the fibre wall to swell freely. Thus, the rupture and partial removal of the swelling-constraining outer secondary wall may be a desirable object of beating.

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