AbstractSevere shortage of suitable wood for Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) production makes it necessary to consider using uncommon and non-conventional raw materials such as agricultural residues. In order to demonstrate the suitability and the potential of two agricultural residues (cotton and corn stalks), laboratory MDF boards were produced. Three press temperatures (170, 180 and 190 ºC) were used. Test samples were prepared from the boards after conditioning at 65% RH and 21 ºC, and all tests were performed according to relevant EN standard methods. The results indicated that the MOR and MOE of boards produced from corn stalks were higher than those from cotton stalks, by almost 25%. However significant difference was not observed for internal bonds of boards. Thickness swelling of MDF boards from corn stalks was lower than cotton stalks. Comparing the results obtained with the strength of boards produced from hardwoods showed similarity between corn stalks and wood, but the strength of MDF boards from cotton stalks was lower. However, the results almost satisfied the EN 622-5;1997 requirement.