NC State
Zhang, M., Ding, C., Chen, L., and Huang, L. (2014). "The preparation of cellulose/collagen composite films using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate as a solvent," BioRes. 9(1), 756-771.


Cellulose/collagen composite films with weight ratios of 30/1 (Blend-1) and 10/1 (Blend-2) were prepared using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate as a common solvent. The morphology of the films observed with a field-emission scanning electron microscope displayed a dependence on the ratio of cellulose/collagen. Collagen was successfully composited with cellulose without degradation and showed a denaturation temperature (Td) higher than that of native collagen. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that there were hydrogen-bong interactions between collagen and cellulose in the regenerated composite films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the maximum decomposition temperature (Tmax) of cellulose decreased after regeneration, while the Tmax of Blend-1 increased; however, it was reduced again for Blend-2. Elastic moduli from dynamic mechanical analysis exhibited a trend similar to that of Tmax. As indicated by X-ray diffraction, the distance between cellulose molecular chains was shortened for Blend-1 and elongated for Blend-2. Furthermore, the crystallization indices were calculated to be 75.3%, 68.3%, 66.2%, and 55.4% for native cellulose, regenerated films of cellulose, Blend-1, and Blend-2, respectively. These results confirm the dependence of the structural properties of composite films on cellulose/collagen ratios through the interactions between cellulose and collagen.
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