AbstractThe properties of phosphorylated kraft fibers, including their flame retardancy and behavior in water, such as electrical charge and swelling capacity, were investigated in this study. Two different phosphorus contents and three forms of phosphorylated fibers (ammonium, acid, and sodium) were analyzed. All types of phosphorylated fibers exhibited high char formation and limiting oxygen index (LOI) values, indicating good flame retardancy. In particular, the ammonium form exhibited the best flame retardancy behavior and the highest LOI value. The charge density and swelling capacity of the kraft fibers were significantly increased by phosphorylation. Alkaline treatment following the phosphorylation reaction further increased the water retention value (WRV) and surface charge of the kraft fibers. Compared to unmodified kraft fibers, the phosphorylated fibers had lower absolute values of the negative zeta potentials, and these values were less affected by conductivity.