NC State
D.W. Einspahr and M. Johnson. Tissue culture and the pulp and paper industry. In Papermaking Raw Materials, Trans. of the VIIIth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1985, (V. Punton, ed.), pp 1–6, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


Emphasis on the tissue culture propagation of forest tress has increased dramatically. Tissue culture methods available to forestry and the pulp and paper industry are micropropagation, organogenesis, and somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis, although more difficult to accomplish, seems to have the most promise for use with forest trees because (1) when appropriately employed it can be a true mass production procedure and (2) the approach can be used efficiently with several genetic engineering techniques. Major genetic gains in growth rate, wood quality, insect and disease resistance, and improved climatic adaptability are anticipated when tissue culture techniques are used in conjunction with genetic engineering. Emphasis in The Institute of Paper Chemistry’s tissue culture research is on the development of a somatic embryogenesis procedure for conifers.

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