AbstractSolid olive mill residue (SOMR), a lignocellulosic material obtained from olive oil extraction, is a potential attractive source of biomass for energy generation. Although SOMR can be directly combusted, a pretreatment can reduce the oxygen and moisture contents of raw SOMR for efficient energy generation. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment method for improving fuel characteristics of raw SOMR. In this study, torrefaction characteristics of SOMR were investigated at three different torrefaction temperatures and holding times. Ultimate and proximate analysis results of torrefied SOMR were compared with dried SOMR. Results indicate that an increased torrefaction temperature and holding time can lead to a more qualified solid fuel with higher carbon content, increased higher heating value (HHV), and reduced oxygen content. Further, increased HHV and removal of volatiles are indicators of more energy-dense solid fuel obtained from SOMR. Experimental results revealed that moderately severe torrefaction conditions with holding times not exceeding 30 minutes are suitable for torrefaction of SOMR.