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As a contribution to the discussion of the research and development process in publicly funded institutes working in the pulp and paper field, the effort in the CSIRO division of Chemical Technology, Melbourne, is described under the following headings: function: the Division as part of CSIRO: staff: research programmes: research administration: funding: career structure and remuneration: interaction with industry and other outside bodies: and achievements. Brief reference is made to pulp and paper laboratories in neighbouring countries, which are usually part of a Forest Research Institute.

In connection with the theme of this Symposium, it appears that the relationship between fundamental research and papermaking can be traced through the Proceedings of previous Symposia, as shown for example by the impacts of the hydrogen, bonding theory on paper strength, the theory of electrokinetic interactions on paper formation, the theory of glass transitions on high yield pulping, the understanding of fibre morphology on resource extension and the theory of hydrodynamics on wet end improvements.

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