AbstractThe objective of this research was to investigate the utilization of olive mill sludge (OMS) as an alternative to wood in the manufacture of the medium density fiberboard (MDF). The MDF panels were manufactured using standardized procedures that simulated industrial production at the laboratory. Six panel types were made from various mixtures of hardwood fiber/dried OMS flour, 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 50/50 (by weight) percents, respectively. With increasing OMS flour content, the flexural properties of the panels, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, decreased by 31.0% and 29.2% as compared to panels without OMS flour, respectively. However, the water resistance was improved by the addition of the OMS flour up to 20 wt % content. For example, the thickness swelling and water absorption values of the panels containing 20% OMS flour were 17.3% and 59.5%, while they were found for the panels without OMS flour as 21.5% and 75.6%, respectively. The findings obtained in the study showed that the OMS was capable of serving as lignocellulosic raw material in the manufacture of the MDF.